Using Azure B2B to invite external users to SharePoint Online
Note: This post is related to Azure AD B2B, which is still in preview. This means that things may still change before the final version Azure AD B2B is released.
Azure AD B2B allows you to invite users from partner companies and let them access your resources using partner-managed identities. Using a partner-managed identity means that you don’t have to create or maintain the user accounts for your external users. The invited users can login to your SharePoint site using his/her own corporate user account, which is a lot better than having them using their personal Microsoft accounts.
If your partner does not have an Azure AD tenant, then B2B will notice this and automatically create a new Azure AD tenant for them based on the domain name of the invited email address. These tenants are called “viral tenants”.
At this point the tenant and the automatically created user accounts (“viral users”) within are not owned or maintained by any specific organization. Users can reset their own passwords and so on, but no-one is assigned as an administrator for the viral tenant. Of course your partner can later on claim the ownership of the viral tenant by registering the domain name in question in their own subscription. After that it will become just a regular Azure AD tenant.
When using Azure AD B2B to invite users in partner companies, the invitation process will also create a corresponding Guest user in your own Azure AD tenant. The created guest account is similar to the one that gets created automatically when you share a SharePoint site to an external user. The guest account created by B2B is actually created before the user has even accepted the invitation, which means that you don’t have to wait for the user to accept the invitation before granting him/her permissios to your SharePoint site.
How to invite users with Azure AD B2B?
Currently the Azure AD B2B invitation process starts with a CSV-file, which contains a list of email addresses you want to invite as guests. This CSV file is then uploaded to Azure AD admin portal, which starts the invitation process.
So the first step of inviting people is to create a CSV file for example using MS Excel:
Email,DisplayName,InvitationText,InviteRedirectUrl,InvitedToApplications,InvitedToGroups,CcEmailAddress,Language firstname.lastname@example.org,John Smith,,https://contoso.sharepoint.com/sites/b2bsite,,,,en email@example.com,Walter Harp,,https://contoso.sharepoint.com/sites/b2bsite,,,,en firstname.lastname@example.org,Ben Smith,,https://contoso.sharepoint.com/sites/b2bsite,,,,en
The format of the CSV-file is described here
and only the fields
DisplayName are actually required for the invitation process.
Note that you should always leave the
CcEmailAddress field empty.
If this field is used, the invitation cannot be used for viral user or tenant creation.
Note: If you live outside the US, you should be aware that when the B2B documentation talks about CSV it actually means comma-separated-values. This means that editing this file in Excel may be a bit difficult, if your CSV-files are usually separated by some other character. For example here in Finland we (and our MS Excels) usually use semicolon (;) instead of commas (,) in our CSV files.
To have your CSV-file processed, you need to login to Azure AD admin portal,
click “Add User” and select the type of the user to be
Users in parner companies.
A detailed walkthrouh (with screenshots) of this can be found here.
Note: Currently Azure AD B2B functionalities are available only in the Azure AD classic portal. So in order to have your CSV file processed, you need to login to https://manage.windowsazure.com and access your Active Directory from there.
Granting permissions to SharePoint
After the CSV file has been processed, the invited users will immediately appear as guests in your own Azure AD and you can start granting permissions to them in SharePoint. Adding a lot of users for example to site’s Visitors-group can however require quite a lot of manual work. You can automate this process by either granting permissions to the site by using an Azure AD group or by using PowerShell.
Option 1: Granting permissions through Azure AD groups
If you create an Azure AD group for your invited users, you can define its
group id in the
InvitedToGroups field of the CSV. This will instruct B2B
to automatically add your invited users to that group. If you can grant permissions
to this Azure AD group in SharePoint, then all of your invited users will also
gain access to your SharePoint site.
Microsoft has published instructions on how to automatically add invited users to specified AD groups. If you take this route, be aware that you can also find the group’s Object ID in the Azure Portal and you don’t necessary need to user PowerShell to look it up (as stated in the Microsoft’s instructions).
Option 2: Granting permissions directly to SharePoint using PowerShell
If you don’t want to start managing SharePoint permissions through AD groups, you can add your invited users directly to SharePoint groups. Luckily we can automate this step with a little PowerShell script.
Since we already have a list of users defined in a CSV file, we can use the same CSV file
to grant permissions to our SharePoint site. We just need to add one
additional field (
SPGroups) to the CSV file in order for our script to know to which
SharePoint groups the user should be added. I’ve chosen to separate multiple group names
with a plus sign (+).
Email,DisplayName,InvitationText,InviteRedirectUrl,InvitedToApplications,InvitedToGroups,CcEmailAddress,Language,SPGroups email@example.com,Jeff Smith,,https://contoso.sharepoint.com/sites/b2bsite,,,,en,"B2Bsite Visitors firstname.lastname@example.org,Walter Harp,,https://contoso.sharepoint.com/sites/b2bsite,,,,en,"B2Bsite Visitors" email@example.com,Ben Smith,,https://contoso.sharepoint.com/sites/b2bsite,,,,en,"B2Bsite Members+B2Bsite Reviewers"
The CSV format reference for B2B does not say anything about additional fields in the CSV-file, but they do not seem to break the invitation process in any way. The B2B process just ignores them which is great from our point of view since we can control both B2B and our PowerShell script with exactly the same file.
After the extended CSV file has been processed by Azure AD B2B you can add the invited users to SharePoint groups by executing a little script in PowerShell. In order for the script to work, you need to have the PnP PowerShell Cmdlets installed on your system.
.\Add-B2BUsersToSite.ps1 -Verbose ` -CSVFilename c:\b2b_users.csv ` -SiteUrl https://contoso.sharepoint.com/sites/b2bsite VERBOSE: Credentials not supplied, prompting for them. Adding firstname.lastname@example.org to site VERBOSE: Adding user to groups VERBOSE: - Adding user to group: B2Bsite Visitors Adding email@example.com to site VERBOSE: Adding user to groups VERBOSE: - Adding user to group: B2Bsite Visitors Adding firstname.lastname@example.org to site VERBOSE: Adding user to groups VERBOSE: - Adding user to group: B2Bsite Members VERBOSE: - Adding user to group: B2Bsite Reviewers
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